Kogi by Embassy of Peace

ed: the first five videos are of a series. and other videos by Jasumeen as an ambassador for the Embassy of Peace, experiencing the Kogis. the introduction to each of the videos is by Jasumeen.

Uploaded on May 13, 2010

KOGI Part 1 – Meetings, Mergings & Healings – Jasmuheen with the Colombian KOGI tribe Elders. The First video in a five part series that shares insights on healing, Kogi culture & more. This video sees her initial meeting and what it triggered for her personally. Indigenous past lives and more.


Uploaded on May 13, 2010

KOGI Part 2 – The Kogi Mamos – Healing & Peace
My healing journey with the KOGI, the inner kingdom of peace, Darkness Training & more. Jasmuheen with Colombia’s Kogi.


Uploaded on May 14, 2010

KOGI Part 3 – The KOGI & Aluna’s Oneness.
Healing Initiations, Aluna’s* plane and message of Oneness, Unification,
acknowledging the Elders & more.


Uploaded on May 13, 2010

KOGI Part 4 – Cosmic Flows & Caretaking
Kogi Messages continued with Jasmuheen.
Their love of the Mother, being in equilibrium, global support, healings, Jasmuheen’s life on the road, cosmic flows, caretaking and Kogi culture


Uploaded on May 13, 2010

KOGI Part 5 – Connecting & Supporting the Kogi.
Working together, being in equilibrium & harmony, how to connect with the Kogi & our indigenous via meditation on the inner plane.


Uploaded on Jan 22, 2012

Jasmuheen sharing a little of her experience at the “The Dawn of a New Time” gathering. The gathering took place near Valledupar, Colombia in August of 2011.
Also see this video

For additional information or to provide support (donations) that go directly to the Arhuaco people, contact the Tayrona Indigenous Confederation, official representatives of the Arhuaco people, at resguardoarhuaco@hotmail.com or connabusimake@hotmail.com.


Lifestyle: LifeWay

for a toxic-free, energised healthy being radiating frequencies that are nourishing for our bodies.1  meditation
2  prayer
3  mastery of the mind
4   lighten your diet: vegetarian, vegan, raw food, fruitarian, whatever suits, to no longer be involved in the slaughter of any life.
5   exercising the body to treat it like a temple
6   service
7   silence: time in nature
8   use of devotional song
Uploaded on Nov 24, 2007

Jasmuheen elaborates on the 8 point Luscious Lifestyles Program for personal harmonization – as offered by the Embassy of Peace.


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Kogi and Hopi by Lucho Condor

Uploaded on Apr 20, 2011

This was a short demo we created to go to film festival market…not anymore…we are now an Exp Film and tour…out of the box filmmaking.
Blessed txs to Rebecca Somers for letting us use UN footage, the Mamos, Hopis, and all the elders of Condor & Eagle nations.

more info at  prophesy last message

This video will not be sold…just for entertainment and a Propehcy in motion….


Uploaded on Apr 20, 2011

This was a short demo we created to go to film festival market…not anymore…we are now an Exp Film and tour…out of the box filmmaking.
Blessed txs to Rebecca Somers for letting us use UN footage, the Mamos, Hopis, and all the elders of Condor & Eagle nations.


Kogi~Hopi Dreams
Uploaded on Feb 5, 2007

Preview of our film with the Late Thomas Hopi elder and Gabriel Alimako Kogi Mama.

 

Kogi by Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff

links


following is an extract of the original. go here for full text

Kogi
ETHNONYMS: Arouaques-Kaggaba, Cágaba, Cogi, Cogui, Kágaba, Káuguia, Köggaba, Pebo

Orientation

Identification. The self-name “Kogi” means “jaguar”—the Kogi trace their origin to mythical jaguar beings. The term “Kágaba” means “people,” whereas “Pebo” means “friend.”
Location. The Kogi live in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, in northern Colombia, inhabiting mainly the northern slopes of the valleys of the Palomino, San Miguel, and Garavito rivers, with a few settlements on the eastern and western slopes. They practice agricultural transhumance on these slopes, which range from about 500 to about 2,500 meters in elevation.

Demography. Exact demographic figures are unavailable; in 1988 the Kogi population was estimated at about 4,000.
Linguistic Affiliation. The Kogi language, together with those of their immediate neighbors, the Ika and Sanha, belongs to a subgroup of the Chibchan Family.

History and Cultural Relations

The Kogi claim to be the descendants of the ancient Tairona Indians who, in prehistoric and early historic times, inhabited parts of the northern and western flanks of the Sierra Nevada and who had created a society that, at the time of the Spanish Conquest, was more advanced than most of the chiefdoms of interior Colombia. Some archaeological and mythological evidence seems to support this claim. In the early sixteenth century the narrow coastal strip lying to the north and northwest of the Sierra Nevada was inhabited by warlike tribes that offered fierce resistance to the Spanish invaders. Even after the founding of the town of Santa Marta in 1526 and the establishment of an uneasy peace, local rebellions occurred frequent. Only during the violent Spanish campaign of 1599-1600 were the Indians finally subdued. Their fields and villages were burned and sacked, chieftains and priests were executed, and those who survived, now decimated by force of arms and spreading diseases, fled into the mountains. During the seventeenth century these scattered remnants of different ethnicities reorganized in the more inaccessible valleys and began to form three or four groups, each with its own, but related, language. During the same century, the name “Tairona” was introduced by Spanish chroniclers as that of the ancient Indians of the Santa Marta region, the archaeological remains of whom are known to this day under this designation. It is to these semimythical and archaeological Tairona that the Kogi refer in their traditions.
Although the Kogi had been exposed to sporadic missionary influences since early Conquest times, the first permanent mission stations were founded only during the eighteenth century. Many Kogi became nominal Catholics but otherwise continued to resist changes in their religious and cosmological beliefs. During the last centuries, however, the Kogi have adopted many old-world food plants together with iron tools, some cattle, domestic fowl, and trousers for men, a selection carefully controlled by the native priesthood. In Colombia, Kogi culture is related to that of the ancient Muica of the Bogotá highlands and to that of the present-day Tunebo Indians. The possibility of ancient Mesoamerican influences in Kogi culture cannot be dismissed.

Settlements

Kogi villages, consisting of five to more than fifty circular, single-family houses, are not permanently inhabited but are social and ritual centers where people gather only at certain times of the year or for short overnight stays while on the way to their fields. People spend most of their time in scattered homesteads spread over the mountain flanks at different altitudes. A family might own up to five or more houses, each one located in a small field clinging to a slope or nestling in a narrow bottomland area. All houses have one door, are windowless, and have a dirt floor; the diameter of an average house is 3 meters. The walls are traditionally made of plaited, flattened canes or, more recently, of wattle and daub. In the cold highlands the walls of some houses are built up of rough stones. The conical roofs of all houses are thatched with mountain grass.

Economy

Subsistence and Commercial Activities. At the time of the Spanish Conquest, some native groups of the Sierra Nevada constructed terraces for agricultural purposes, with retaining walls of boulders and stones, the remains of which can still be seen in many parts of present-day Kogi territory. At that time the staple food was maize, but when, during the following centuries, creole peasants pushed the Indians higher up into the mountains, the Kogi had to readapt; maize cultivation declined and was largely replaced by plantains, squashes, and tree crops. Game has become very scarce; people collect some beetles and river crabs and occasionally hunt birds or small rodents.

Industrial Arts. Kogi material culture is extremely simple. The men weave coarse cotton cloth for the entire family, but spinning may be done by both sexes. The women weave cotton or agave fibers into small carrying bags for personal articles; basket weaving is almost unknown. Household items such as benches, string hammocks, open-net bags, cooking vessels, gourd water jugs, gourd spoons, and wooden mortars are of coarse manufacture.

Trade. Trade relations have been going on for centuries. The Kogi manufacture primitive sugarcane presses and exchange or sell bricks of raw sugar to the Colombian lowland peasants who, in turn, provide the Indians with bush knives, cast-iron vessels, salt, sun-dried fish, steel needles, and similar items. In recent times some Kogi families have been growing coffee for sale in the lowlands. Wage labor is practically unknown.

Division of Labor. Both men and women work in the fields, help in house construction, and spin cotton thread. In other activities, however, a marked division along sex lines is observed. Weaving is a strictly male activity, and so are pottery making and coca planting. Carrying water, cooking, and laundering are female tasks, whereas the men procure firewood, clean the village premises, build bridges, and maintain the mountain trails, the fences, and the roof thatch. Most ritual activities are carried out by men, and women are forbidden to enter the temple or other ceremonial enclosures.

Land Tenure. All cultivated lands are privately owned. Hunting and gathering territories are communal property, but occasionally some wild-growing fruit trees have individual owners. Several years ago the Colombian government established a large Indian territory in the Sierra Nevada and began to buy up many small farms owned by encroaching creole settlers and returning them to the Indians. Lately, the Indians have been laying claim to many archaeological sites, which they consider to be a sacred heritage from Tairona times, and problems are arising between tradition-minded tribal authorities and government agencies in charge of prehistoric monuments.

Kinship

Kin Groups and Descent. The basic structural principle is parallel descent, by which a son follows his father’s lineage and a daughter follows her mother’s. Some of these lineages lay claim to lordly or priestly status; some claim to be direct descendants of the Tairona, whereas others admit to being of mixed origin or trace their lineages to historical or mythical groups that were not related to the Tairona. Among men, membership in a certain lineage is a matter of pride; women sometimes ignore the names and attributes of their lineages. Intermarriage with Hispanic or Black elements is nonexistent, but rape and concubinage, probably going back to Conquest and colonial times, cannot be ignored in the present genetic constitution of the Kogi.

Kinship Terminology. Traditional terminology seems to follow the Hawaiian system.

Marriage and Family

Marriage. Patriand matrilines are ranked and named; each descent group has a mythical ancestor and place of origin and is associated with a certain “male” or “female” animal species. The traditional ideal was a marriage between the male predator and the female prey. During the last three or four generations, these marriage rules have been largely ignored, although most active priests continue to insist upon them. Polygyny is uncommon but, in view of the frequent scarcity of convenient, young, marriageable women, a young man might marry a woman considerably older than himself and later on marry a young girl; the first wife stays on as a “cook.”

Domestic Unit. Nuclear families are the rule. In Kogi homesteads, husband and wife traditionally occupy separate huts, but in the village the men will pass the night in the temple dancing, chanting, or discussing village affairs.
Inheritance. Fields, houses, and domestic animals are passed from father to son and from mother to daughter. Tairona heirlooms, lime containers, and other ritual objects are male property; bone needles, cooking vessels, or necklaces of Tairona beads are female property.

Socialization. Child training is very strict, much emphasis being put upon obedience, collaboration, food sharing, respect for elders, self-control, and silence. Aggressiveness is severely punished, as is any manifestation of infantile sexuality. Physical or verbal contact with the father is uncommon during infancy.

Sociopolitical Organization

Social Organization. Hierarchical structures are very important in mythical thought and in the daily appreciation of social and natural phenomena. Esoteric knowledge carries great prestige. Earthly possessions are of no importance, the Kogi value system being antimaterialistic and, at the same time, exalting the moral and ethical qualities of their religious and intellectual elite. The entire sociopolitical orientation is based upon their concepts of occupying the “center” of the world, of being the “elder brothers” of all humankind, and of leading an exemplary life. These cultural truths are constantly being extolled as the leading principles of Kogi society, family life, and individual behavior.

Political Organization. Remnants of the Spanish colonial cabildo (village council) system are combined with the authority of native priests. Civil and religious authority have been closely linked since early colonial times and, possibly, before that. Some priestly lineages claim to be the overlords of certain regions and are respected as such. Most family and village affairs are taken before the local comisario or priest, but some cases are taken before the Colombian authorities in one of the neighboring lowland towns.

Social Control. Kogi society condemns all manifestations of aggressiveness: murder, arson, rape, and vandalism are almost unknown. Petty thefts do occur and drunken fistfights are fairly frequent. The Kogi are a quarrelsome people; they like to indulge in long-winded discussions of personal or community misgivings. A major control system is provided by the native institution of public confession, which covers a wide range of offenses mainly relating to sexual matters or interpersonal hostilities. Punishments consist of beatings, short-term hard-labor tasks, or religious penitence. The main threat for misbehavior is supernatural punishment by illness.

Conflict. Kogi traditions speak of many conflict situations in the past, some of them going back to the Spanish Conquest, whereas others refer to past intertribal warfare. There has been no tribal revolt against established authority since 1600, and the Kogi pride themselves on their peaceable attitudes in the face of outside pressures or occasional interpersonal tensions. Local nativistic movements, mainly in the 1940s, were of little consequence, and, at present, sporadic revivalistic movements have only a few followers. The concepts of opposition and alliance constitute recurrent themes in Kogi cosmology, myth, and philosophy; however, in spite of apparent dualistic classifications and categories, the concept of “balance” is predominant.

Religion and Expressive Culture

Religious Beliefs. The creation myth describes the process of embryogenesis in a cosmic womb, paralleled by the unfolding of individual consciousness and the first structuring of the universe. The creator-goddess is the Mother, a self-existent and initially self-fecundating Magna Mater. Next to the Mother are her sons, who are the Lords of the Universe; together with their divine sister-spouses, they are in charge of all aspects of nature and of people’s behavior. The Mother also created Sun and Moon, to establish a precise cosmic clockwork order. There also exist a large number of male or female spirit beings, rain and thunder beings, animal spirits, and others. The three basic dimensions of divine creation are: a nine-layered universe, a nine-tiered temple, and a nine-month-phased human womb. Religious activities refer mainly to fertility and to the need to achieve balance between the opposing forces and tendencies in nature and human minds.

Religious Practitioners. Kogi priests must undergo a long and very exacting training period, during which they must develop a strong and dominant personality of high ethical standards together with a broad understanding of political and ecological issues. Priestly activities are centered upon temples that, apart from being sun-watching stations, symbolize the womb of the Mother.

Ceremonies. The annual ritual cycle is marked by the four solstitial and equinoctial ceremonies, dates that coincide with the onset of the rainy or dry season. Masked dances or minor ceremonies are celebrated to honor a host of spirit beings throughout the year. Local priests are in charge of all rituals of the individual’s life cycle. Private ritual actions are very frequent, consisting of offerings to the Mother or to the ancestors, public confessions, dietary or sexual restrictions, solitary pilgrimages to sacred sites, and the learning of dances, songs, and traditions. During some of the major ceremonies, priests wear ancient Tairona ornaments such as carved masks, ritual objects of polished and carved stone or wood, and pectorals or wristlets of gold or tumbaga (tombac).

Arts. Singing and dancing are the principal Kogi artistic expressions and are highly formalized. Rhetoric, the recital of cosmogonic myths accompanied by prescribed stances and gestures, is an important art form. Applied decorative arts are nonexistent except for some colored stripes on clothes or carrying bags, the function of which is lineage identification.

Medicine. Minor Kogi priests, who have a lower, shamanic status as healers, have a good knowledge of herbal medicine. Many diseases, however, are attributed to malevolent spirit beings, vindictive ancestors, or social dysfunctions; in these cases the priests, elders, or family members prescribe adequate offerings or confession.

Death and Afterlife. At death the soul-stuff returns to the Mother’s womb because life is but a brief period between two intrauterine states. Earthly annihilation is followed by the soul’s wandering to the Land of Death, where it is accused, judged, and punished. The soul then proceeds, over one of the many trails assigned to it, to its final destiny.
Bibliography
Preuss, K. T. (1926). Forschungsreise zu den Kágaba: Beobachtungen, Textaufnahmen und sprachliche Studien bei einem Indianerstamme in Kolumbien, Südamerika. Vienna: Anthropos.
Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo (1985). Los Kogi: Una tribu de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Bogotá: Procultura.
Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo (1987). “The Great Mother and the Kogi Universe: A Concise Overview.” Journal of Latin American Lore 13:73-113.
GERARDO REICHEL-DOLMATOFF

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo. “Kogi.” Encyclopedia of World Cultures. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. 23 Apr. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com&gt;.

The Black Line Initiative

Published on Apr 3, 2015

The Black Line Initiative sprung from Aluna the movie and aims to allow groups caring for their own environment to be in contact with the Kogi and work directly with them. What comes next is up to you. Join us for a remarkable journey. blacklineinitiative.org

Arhuaco by Wade Davis

wade davis

Photo by Mark Thiessen

Anthropologist/Ethnobotanist
Explorers Council, Explorer-in-Residence, 2000-2013
source of below extract

Wade Davis was named by the NGS as one of the Explorers for the Millennium, he has been described as “a rare combination of scientist, scholar, poet and passionate defender of all of life’s diversity.” In recent years his work has taken him to East Africa, Borneo, Nepal, Peru, Polynesia, Tibet, Mali, Benin, Togo, New Guinea, Australia, Colombia, Vanuatu, Mongolia and the high Arctic of Nunuvut and Greenland.

An ethnographer, writer, photographer, and filmmaker, Davis holds degrees in anthropology and biology and received his Ph.D. in ethnobotany, all from Harvard University. Mostly through the Harvard Botanical Museum, he spent over three years in the Amazon and Andes as a plant explorer, living among fifteen indigenous groups in eight Latin American nations while making some 6000 botanical collections. His work later took him to Haiti to investigate folk preparations implicated in the creation of zombies, an assignment that led to his writing Passage of Darkness (1988) and The Serpent and the Rainbow (1986), an international best seller later released by Universal as a motion picture.

His other books include Penan: Voice for the Borneo Rain Forest (1990), Shadows in the Sun (1993), Nomads of the Dawn (1995), One River (1996), which was nominated for the 1997 Governor General’s Literary Award for Nonfiction, The Clouded Leopard (1998), Rainforest (1998), Light at the Edge of the World (2001), The Lost Amazon (2004), Grand Canyon (2008), Book of Peoples of the World (ed. 2008) and The Wayfinders: Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern World, the 2009 Massey lectures. His books have been translated into fifteen languages, including Basque, Serbian, Korean, Mandarin, Bulgarian, Japanese and Malay, and have sold approximately 800,000 copies worldwide.


Published on Jul 31, 2015

Ancient Voices, Modern World: Acclaimed anthropologist Wade Davis journeys into hidden worlds to find cultures that have preserved their ways of life in the face of modern society.

Part 1: Mongolia

Acclaimed anthropologist and explorer Wade Davis travels to the Central Asian steppes of Mongolia to meet descendents of Genghis Khan. These people are remnants of an ancient nomadic horse culture that thrived in the region’s harsh conditions for more than 2,000 years.

Part 2: Australia

National Geographic joins Wade Davis on a journey deep into the Australian outback to document the disappearing cultures of Australia’s Aborigines, thought to be one of the oldest groups of peoples on earth. After losing clan members to disease, war, and famine–as well as battling enforced relocations–small Aboriginal clans must fight to keep traditions alive for the next generation.

Part 3: Amazon

National Geographic ventures into the rain forest with Wade Davis for an up-close look at the Barasana River people, a group believed to be descendents of the legendary “lost” Amazonians. Davis embarks on a symbolic journey that will honour the group’s ancestors and witnesses the rituals that demonstrate respect for this tropical landscape.

Part 4: Colombia

Acclaimed anthropologist and explorer Wade Davis makes a remarkable journey into the heart of war-torn Colombia to visit one of the indigenous groups that call themselves the Elder Brothers. These extraordinary people claim to be the last descendants of a once-great civilization, the Tairona, and to speak with their voice. Could they be the last window we have on the great high civilizations of the ancient Americas?

Aluna the movie

Aluna the movie website

“From the Heart of the World: The Elder Brothers’ Warning (Kogi message)” 1992 – watch online the previous kogi film by Alan Ereira – 1.5 hours

Official Trailer


a word from Alan Ereira

Published on Apr 3, 2015

The Black Line Initiative sprung from Aluna the movie and aims to allow groups caring for their own environment to be in contact with the Kogi and work directly with them. What comes next is up to you. Join us for a remarkable journey. blacklineinitiative.org


Supporters for Aluna the film

Published on Oct 27, 2014

Published on Oct 2, 2014

Musician Julian Lennon shares his views about the Kogi Indians of Colombia and their new film ALUNA. To watch the film go here. To see live streaming for the release of the film go here


Published on Sep 30, 2014

Traditional carer of Uluru in Central Australia speaks about his support of the Kogi Indians of Colombia’s new film ALUNA.
Find out how to watch the film here


more supporter videos

Sierra Nevada Indians: Kogi (or Kaggaba), Arhuaco (or Ika), Wiwa, Kankuamo

to assist the kogi and other sierra indians (Arhuaco (or Ika), Wiwa, Kogi, and Kankuamo), please go to the trust which was established in collaboration with the indians themselves . . . . Tairona Heritage Trust.


Aluna the movie


source of below extract

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is a unique pyramid-shaped mountain on the northern tip of the Andes in northern Colombia. On its slopes live four separate but related peoples: the Arhuaco (or Ika), Wiwa, Kogi, and Kankuamo. Together they number more than 30,000.

The mountain’s peak is over 5,000m high. Rising from the shores of the Caribbean, the lower plains are clad in tropical forest, turning to open savannah and cloud forest higher up.

To the Indians, the Sierra Nevada is the heart of the world. It is surrounded by an invisible ‘black-line’ that encompasses the sacred sites of their ancestors and demarcates their territory.

Older brothers

The Sierra Indians call themselves ‘the older brothers’, and believe that they have a mystical wisdom and understanding which surpasses that of others. They refer to outsiders as ‘the younger brothers.’

A meeting amongst the lush landscape of the Sierra Nevada

A meeting amongst the lush landscape of the Sierra Nevada © Danilo Villafañe

The older brothers believe it is their responsibility to maintain the balance of the universe. When there are hurricanes, droughts, or famines around the world it is said that they are the cause of human failure to keep the world in harmony.

Balance is achieved by making offerings to the sacred sites to give back to the earth what is taken out of it.

Mamos

Arhuaco man, Colombia.

Arhuaco man, Colombia. © Survival

Spiritual leaders are called Mamos. The Mamo is charged with maintaining the natural order of the world through songs, meditations and ritual offerings.

Mamo training begins at a young age and continues for around 18 years. The young male is taken high into the mountains where he is taught to meditate on the natural and spirit world.

In Western culture, the Mamo could be seen as the priest, teacher and doctor, all rolled into one.

Coca vs cocaine

Surplus seashell powder creates a thick rim around the poporo over time

Surplus seashell powder creates a thick rim around the poporo over time © Danilo VillafañeThe coca leaf plays a central role in daily life and is used in offerings and ceremonies.

Each man carries a bag of the leaves, which are chewed to create a mildly stimulating effect. When two men meet, a handful of leaves is exchanged as a sign of mutual respect.

A hollowed-out gourd called a ‘poporo’ contains crushed seashells. A stick is used to transfer the powder to the wad of coca in the mouth – the highly alkaline shells react with the coca to stimulate its active ingredients. Surplus powder is rubbed on the neck of the poporo – over time, this becomes a thick collar.

The poporo is a symbol of manhood and a mark of civilization amongst the Indians.

The poporo is a symbol of manhood and a mark of civilization amongst the Indians. © Danilo Villafañe

Coca is also grown by non-Indian settlers as the raw material for cocaine. Colombia has long been dubbed the cocaine capital of the world, and its production has had devastating consequences for the indigenous population.

The lower slopes of the Sierra have been occupied by colonists growing coca for the drug trade that funds much of the armed conflict between guerrilla groups and paramilitaries in the country’s long-running civil war.

Despite the Indians’ peaceful nature, they have frequently been caught in the crossfire between the army and illegal armed groups, and many have been killed or forced to flee from the quasi-civil war raging on their land.

Keep off our land!

'The entrance of non-Indians is prohibited', sign at an Arhuaco village

‘The entrance of non-Indians is prohibited’, sign at an Arhuaco village © Kelly Loudenberg/Arianna Lapenne

For us, grave robbing is the same as taking a mother and removing her guts, taking out her teeth and replacing them with dentures, removing an eye and replacing it with glass. Mamo Ramon Gil

The Sierra Indians are descendants of the Tairona, a great civilization whose masterful gold work and architecture draw tourists and grave robbers alike to the region.

Each tribe has adapted to the invasion of their lands in its own ways: the Kogi shunned outside invasion by fleeing higher up the Sierra. They have remained particularly averse to visits from camera-toting tourists.

The Arhuaco, whose men are distinguished by their white conical hats, organized a strong political movement to defend their rights, while the Kankuamo living on the lower foothills were almost entirely integrated into mainstream society.

Water

Water is highly revered by the Indians and there is strong opposition to existing and planned hydroelectric dams in the region. Dams interfere with the natural water cycle of the Sierra and threaten the tribes’ crops and livestock.

Privately owned land and development projects are making it increasingly difficult for the Indians to move within their ancestral territory and make offerings to keep the world in balance.